Italian-Present perfect tense

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Present perfect (Il passato prossimo)
The present perfect is used for single actions or events (stamattina sono andato a scuola “I went to school this morning”), or change in state (si è arrabbiato quando gliel’ho detto “he got angry when I told him that”), contrasting with the imperfect which is used for habits (andavo in bicicletta a scuola ogni mattina “I used to go to school by bike every morning”), or repeated actions, not happening at a specific time (si arrabbiava ogni volta che qualcuno glielo diceva “he got angry every time someone told him that”).

The past participle
The past participle is used to form the compound pasts (e.g. ho lavorato, avevo lavorato, ebbi lavorato, avrò lavorato). Regular verbs follow a productive pattern, but there are many verbs with an irregular past participle.

verbs in -are add -ato to the stem: parlato, amato;
some verbs in -ere add -uto to the stem: creduto;
verbs in -ire add -ito to the stem: partito, finito;
other verbs in -ere are irregular, they mutate the stem and add -o, -so, -sto or -tto to the stem: preso /ˈpreːzo, ˈpreːso/ (from prendere), letto /ˈlɛtto/ (from leggere), rimasto (from rimanere);
fare and dire do exactly the same thing: fatto (from fare), detto /ˈdetto/ (from dire). Compounds from the root -durre similarly have -dotto /ˈdotto/;
venire has venuto and bere has bevuto;
stare and essere both have stato.

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